Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play important roles at cellular, foliar, ecosystem, and atmospheric levels. The Amazonian rainforest represents one of the major global sources of BVOCs, so its study is essential for understanding BVOC dynamics. It also provides insights into the role of such large and biodiverse forest ecosystems in regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate. We review the current information on Amazonian BVOCs and identify future research priorities; exploring biogenic emissions and drivers, ecological interactions, atmospheric impacts, depositional processes, and modifications to BVOC dynamics due to changes in climate and land cover. A feedback loop between Amazonian BVOCs and the trends of climate and land-use changes in Amazonia is then constructed. Satellite and modelling data demonstrate the validity of the proposed loop showing a combined effect of climate change and deforestation on BVOC emission in Amazonia. During the wet season there is a decreasing trend of isoprene attributed to forest biomass loss and during the dry season there is an increasing trend of the sequiterpene to isoprene ratio, suggesting increasing temperature stress induced emissions due to climate change.